deregulated Energy Markets

What States Have Deregulated Energy Markets?

Did you know you could be paying more for your energy than you need to? With energy deregulation, you can choose your energy provider and save money on your bills. In this blog post, we’ll explore the ins and outs of energy deregulation and closely examine which states have deregulated energy markets.

Key Takeaways

  • Energy deregulation lets consumers choose their energy provider by removing government regulations. This includes energy services such as electric utilities and natural gas choices.
  • Thirty-four states have fully or partially deregulated energy markets, with fully deregulated states offering more consumer options.
  • Energy deregulation can lead to lower prices with more energy services available. But it can also lead to higher price volatility, choice complexity, and potential market manipulation by energy suppliers.
  • Consumers should carefully consider options for choosing energy companies that fit their needs and budget.

What Is Energy Deregulation?

Energy deregulation is the process of removing government regulations that control the energy market. Before deregulation, a single utility company was responsible for generating and delivering electricity or natural gas to consumers in a given area. Consumers had no choice but to purchase energy from this company at regulated prices.

With deregulated energy states, consumers can choose their energy provider. This means multiple energy suppliers can compete for customers in a given area, potentially lowering consumer prices. Deregulation can apply to both natural gas and electricity markets.

Governments choose to deregulate energy markets for several reasons. One of the primary reasons is to increase competition, which can lead to lower prices for consumers. Deregulation can also encourage innovation and investment in the energy sector. Local utility companies can develop new technologies and business models without regulatory barriers.

However, energy deregulation can also have drawbacks. In some cases, it can lead to price volatility and potentially higher energy costs for consumers. Deregulated markets can also be more complex for consumers, as they must choose from multiple energy suppliers and plans. 

Which States Have Deregulated Energy Markets?

states with deregulated energy map

There are 34 states with fully or partially deregulated energy markets (some with only pilot programs or less). These states are:

  1. Arizona
  2. California
  3. Colorado
  4. Connecticut
  5. Delaware
  6. District of Columbia
  7. Florida
  8. Georgia
  9. Illinois
  10. Indiana
  11. Kansas
  12. Kentucky
  13. Maine
  14. Maryland
  15. Massachusetts
  16. Michigan
  17. Montana
  18. Nebraska
  19. Nevada
  20. New Hampshire
  21. New Jersey
  22. New Mexico
  23. New York
  24. Ohio
  25. Oregon
  26. Pennsylvania
  27. Rhode Island
  28. South Dakota
  29. Virginia
  30. West Virginia
  31. Tennessee
  32. Texas
  33. Wisconsin
  34. Wyoming

Each state that has deregulated its energy market has its own unique system. For example, consumers cannot choose energy suppliers in regulated states such as Hawaii and Mississippi. They can only purchase electricity and natural gas from a single utility company.

In contrast, deregulated electricity is available in Illinois for residential and non-residential consumers in the Ameren and ComEd utility territories. At the same time, natural gas choice is available for residential and non-residential consumers in the Nicor, North Shore, and Peoples Gas utility territories.

While each state has its unique energy deregulation system, some general trends can be observed. States with fully deregulated energy markets tend to have the most consumer options. Most of Texas, for example, has a fully deregulated energy market. Some parts of Texas, however, are served by electric co-ops, meaning that people in these areas cannot choose their electricity providers. 

In contrast, states with partially deregulated markets may have limited options or restrictions on energy suppliers. In Michigan, residents can choose to purchase from alternative electricity providers. But state law limits the amount of electricity that can be provided by alternative suppliers to, at most, 10% of the primary service provider’s average retail sales for the preceding year, thereby limiting consumer availability.

How Does Energy Deregulation Affect Consumers?

When it comes to energy deregulation, there are both benefits and drawbacks that consumers need to keep in mind. On the one hand, deregulation means energy suppliers have to compete for your business, leading to potentially lower prices and more choices for consumers. This is similar to shopping around for the best deal on your energy bill, just like you would for a new phone, rather than being forced to buy one specific phone only.

For example, small businesses or homeowners who want to use renewable energy sources may prefer deregulated markets where they can choose from a range of independent energy suppliers offering such options.

On the other hand, in regulated markets, consumers can be assured of stable and predictable energy prices, as utilities are subject to government regulations that set the prices. This may be preferable for consumers prioritizing stability over choice, such as those on a fixed income. However, regulated markets may limit options for consumers, as there is typically only one utility company serving a specific area.

Despite the potential benefits of deregulated markets, increased competition can also lead to price volatility and sudden price increases. Therefore, choosing an energy plan that fits your needs and budget is crucial. 

Alongside navigating multiple energy suppliers and programs, there’s also the potential for market manipulation and abuse by energy suppliers, which is why consumers need to be aware of both the benefits and drawbacks of energy deregulation.